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Goals of management

bloodpressureGoals of management is a guide to assist you in managing your diabetes. It is important when you have your health checks you have an understanding of what the numbers signify and how it relates to your diabetes management.

This information is intended to be used with the help of a relevant health professional, and is available as a booklet to download.

Blood Glucose Level (BGL)

  • Ideal 4.0 – 6.0 mmol/L (fasting), 4.0 – 7.7 mmol/L (2 hours post meal)
  • NHMRC 6.1 – 8.0 mmol/L (fasting), 6.0 – 10.0 mmol/L (2 hours post meal)
  • These levels are a guide only – it is important to discuss your individual target range with your doctor.


  • Every 3 months ≤7% or ≤53 mmol/mol
  • Discuss your individual HbA1c target with your doctor.


  • Every 12 months or as advised.
  • Total cholesterol <4.0 mmol/L*
  • HDL-C >1.0 mmol/L*
  • LDL-C <2.0 mmol/L*
  • Non HDL-C <2.5 mmol/L*
  • Triglycerides <2.0 mmol/L*

Blood pressure

  • 3 monthly ≤130/80 mm Hg

Kidney Function (Microalbuminuria/eGFR)

  • Ensure you discuss with your doctor about the importance of providing a sample of urine and a blood test to check your kidney health each year!


  • 18 – 24.9 kg/m² where appropriate
  • 22 – 27 kg/m² >65 years

Waist circumference

  • Caucasian Men <94 cm="" li="">
  • Caucasian Women <80 cm="" li="">


  • Carry out daily self checks.
  • 6 – 12 monthly with a podiatrist.


  • 2 yearly ophthalmologist or as advised (with dilated pupils).

Cigarette consumption

  • Zero – Contact Quit Line on 1300 809 522.

Dental checks

  • 6 monthly visits with a dentist.


  • ≤2 standard drinks (20 g) per day for men and women with 2 alcohol free days per week.

Physical activity

  • Aim for 30 minutes walking (or equivalent) on 5 or more days per week (total ≥150 minutes/week). Include two or more resistance training sessions per week.


  • If you develop diabetes you must inform the Driving Licensing Authority in South Australia. It is also advisable to inform your motor vehicle insurer. For further information contact Services SA on 13 10 84. Remember: 'Above 5 to drive!'
  • If you are taking certain medications that can cause you to have a hypo (also known as a low blood glucose level) always check your blood glucose level prior to driving to ensure it is above 5 mmol/L.


  • Influenza – Once per year.
  • Pneumococcal – Discuss immunisation with your doctor.
  • Tetanus – Booster at age 50 (unless booster has been given within last 10 years).

Know your medications

  • As a person with diabetes, you may be taking multiple medications not just for diabetes, but for other medical conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and dyslipidemia (abnormal amount of cholesterol and/or fat in the blood).
  • It is important to have an understanding of how these medications work and what the side effects may be.
  • For example, can the diabetes medications you take cause hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose levels)?
  • Discuss the action and possible side effects of your medications with your doctor and/or pharmacist today.

Who can help?

People with chronic and complex conditions are eligible for a Medicare rebate to visit Allied Health Professionals for a maximum of five (5) services per patient each calendar year.

To access these services patients must have a General Practice Management Plan (GPMP) and Team Care Arrangements (TCA) prepared by their GP.

The GPMP was designed to be developed within a partnership of a GP and a person with a chronic and complex condition such as diabetes. Together you and your doctor can discuss your needs, health goals and how these can be achieved.

TCA are an expansion of the GPMP which can help you to achieve your health goals by allowing you to access Allied Health Professionals.

Allied Health Professionals that you can access with a limit of only 5 services include:

  • Diabetes Educator
  • Dietitian
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Chiropractor
  • Audiologist
  • Aboriginal Health Worker/Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health practitioner
  • Mental health worker
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Osteopath
  • Physiotherapist
  • Podiatrist
  • Psychologist
  • Speech pathologist

Family and pre-pregnancy planning

  • There are many considerations from pre-conception to birth to help manage a healthy pregnancy and delivery when a woman has diabetes.
  • It is vital that blood glucose levels are maintained within target range before becoming pregnant and throughout all stages of pregnancy to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. It is recommended to have a review of your medications and screen for complications before conception.
  • Discuss contraception and family planning with your doctor today.


These goals are derived form Diabetes Management in General Practice, Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes 2015/16.

*National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).


Goals of management

Goals of management is a guide to assist you in managing your diabetes. This booklet is intended to be used with the help of a relevant health professional.

Download: Goals of management

Other resources